The variation between men and women in the gender classifications was not statistically significant. J Pers Soc Psychol 32 : Gender is linked to roles and behaviors expected of men and women in a particular culture at a specific time, and may be influenced by education and socioeconomic status.
Psychol Rep 51 :
Making my way through the 60 questions was an odd experience. Dev Psychol 15 : Psychometrika 16 : Schmitz S Sex, gender, and the brain — biological determinism versus socio-cultural constructivism. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 42
Conceived and designed the experiments: RG AF. NaderStefan Stieger Psychology Bem SL The measurement of psychological androgyny. User lists Similar Items.
Competing Interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist. The scores are given on the scales, thus if you have a score of 4, you are exactly in the middle. BSRI scales were also incorporated into research modeling the extent to which individuals engage in stereotypically feminine and masculine behaviours.
Research on education, SES and gender may reveal the extent to which socioeconomic deprivation impacts gender. Discussion There is growing evidence that gender roles have an effect on health that is independent of biological sex itself, with masculinity likely conferring greater risks of illness for both men and women [ 40 — 44 ].