These sex differences support a role for the sex hormones in aggression. In ovariectomized mice, chronic and acute replacement with estradiol benzoate 48 h prior to social learning prolonged the expression of a socially-acquired food preference Clipperton-Allen et al. Hunter-gatherers and human evolution.
OT and the OTR are under estrogenic control, with both brain and plasma OT levels and brain OTRs fluctuating with the estrous cycle, dropping after ovariectomy, and increasing in response to estradiol benzoate administration Bale et al. One area that remains relatively unexplored in the literature, and is of special concern when considering gender differences, is the possible role that sex hormones e.
The Mating Mind. Women also reported more intense feelings of anger in relation to terrifying situations, especially situations involving a male protagonist. Retrieved 28 June For example, they found females performed better on verbal abilities while males performed better on visuospatial abilities.
One explanation is that men tend to externalize stress while women tend to internalize it.
By ages 3 and 4 years, females tend to outperform males at tasks that require inhibitory control and theory of mind Carlson and Moses Differential effects of dopamine receptor D1-type and D2-type antagonists and phase of the estrous cycle on social learning of food preferences, feeding, and social interactions in mice.
In this response, we begin by providing important theoretical background regarding shyness and its related constructs.
The potential of displaying relatively high frequencies of both aggressive and withdrawn behaviors may place boys at increased risk for negative social interactions. Systematic meta-review and quality assessment of the structural brain alterations in schizophrenia.
Journal of Personality. For example, some individuals may lack a strong motivation to engage others in interaction whilst, at the same time, would not avoid interaction if approached by others. Corresponding author.