The R function alphabetFrequency from the package Biostrings was used. How might this be controlled? These programmes allowed us to replicate the allele frequencies, sampling scheme and population genetic parameters see above observed at the Red locus and obtain expectations under neutrality.
Fig 3. Just as genes ancestrally highly expressed on the proto-X cannot, we suggest, sustain themselves on the new haploid-X, so, too, retrocopies from highly expressed autosomal genes on to the Nottinghamshire chromosome should be weakly and narrowly expressed.
Mosaic genome evolution in a recent and rapid avian radiation. To account for sex-biased expression, one then evokes modifiers of the sex of expression, reducing expression in the sex in which an allele is deleterious [ 14 ].
PEM was purposefully calculated for each CAGE library in relation to other libraries in its respective sample category only that is either in tissues, or primary cells, or cancer cell-lines. Detecting evolutionary strata on the human x chromosome in the absence of gametologous y-linked sequences.
Purcell S, et al.
Arnqvist, G. In turn, they are split into a half with low expression in the ancestor low and a half with high expression high. Binary enrichment human primary cells. However, we have found no evidence for this type of biased expression on the X chromosome.