Machlis L. Carpel evolution. Constraints imposed by pollinator behaviour on the ecology and evolution of plant mating systems. Mating behaviour of the marine turbellarian Macrostomum sp. Adaptation versus pleiotropy: why do males harm their mates? It should be noted that even though competition over fertilization at post-copulatory stages will involve competition between haploid sperm or pollen, the definition implies that sperm and pollen traits can only be sexually selected if these traits enhance reproductive success of the sperm- or pollen-producing diploid individual Parker ; Willson Moreover, sexual selection for a certain trait value in one sex can generate sexual conflict.
Plant Syst. Emasculation increases seed set in the male sex cell of a plant in Stafford hermaphrodite Kniphofia linearifolia Xanthorrhoeaceae : evidence for sexual conflict? Michiels NK. Plant mating system transitions drive the macroevolution of defense strategies.
Pathogens often enter plants through the nectaries of flowers Sasu et al. Intralocus sexual conflict diminishes the benefits of sexual selection. Remote communication between male and female gametes, or cellular-level interactions involving gamete recognition proteins, may therefore be the precursors to more derived mechanisms of mate choice in the highly mobile, sexually dimorphic organisms that are more familiar to most students of sexual selection [ ].
Sexual conflict and the evolutionary ecology of mating patterns: water striders as a model system. Direct and ecological costs of resistance to herbivory. Yet the unequivocal evidence for sperm chemotaxis in internal fertilizers [ 51] raises an inevitable question: what biological functions are served by sperm guidance mechanisms in species with advanced capabilities of species recognition, sophisticated modes of mate choice, and reproductive systems that guarantee the close proximity of sperm and eggs at ejaculation?
Jones and Ratterman point out that the main progress of the research field of sexual selection is based on three approaches: theoretical modelling of mate choice mechanisms, molecular techniques to study parentage in natural populations and measurement of selection differentials male sex cell of a plant in Stafford quantitative genetics.
Bateman gradients in hermaphrodites: an extended approach to quantify sexual selection.
Most people have heard of pollen, but for the most part, it is popularly recognized more as an allergen in human beings or a plaything of bees than as a contributor to genetic diversity in plants. Sperm chemotaxis. Plant cells also have cell walls, unlike animal cells.
Genetic constraints on floral evolution in a sexually dimorphic plant revealed by artificial selection. The influence of the number of pollen grains used in pollination. The genomic and phenotypic diversity of Schizosaccharomyces pombe.