In mature human ovaries, GHR immunoreactivity was also detected in the oocyte nucleus [ ]. Instead, GH mRNA is largely confined to spermatogonia and primary spermatocytes, but GH immunoreactivity is only detectable in secondary spermatocytes and spermatids [ ].
Brunet-Dunand S. Endocrine Reviews. However, fewer GH molecules penetrate the cumulus layer to bind with oocyte GHRs, thereby maintaining optimal stoichiometry.
Normal progression of testicular size in boys with idiopathic short stature and isolated growth hormone deficiency treated with growth hormone: experience from the KIGS. Involvement of growth hormone GH and insulin-like growth factor IGF system in ovarian folliculogenesis. National Journal of Andrology.
GH supplementation to an ART protocol in this discrete population improves both the fertilization rate and the quality of the resulting embryos, as indicated by improved blastomere uniformity and cleavage rate and decreased apoptosis [ ].
During sexual arousal, contractions force the sperm into the vas deferens. In men, LH causes the interstitial cells of the testes to produce the hormone testosterone. The production of female sex hormones is regulated by a complex feedback system that regulates the menstrual cycle as well.
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Tesarik J. Role of some vasoactive mediators in patients with erectile dysfunction: their relationship with angiotensin-converting enzyme and growth hormone. In addition to the fertility-related processes discussed below, GH also contributes to overall ovarian health, since its administration in vivo diminishes injury-induced tissue damage by acting as an antioxidant [ ].
Prospective safety surveillance of GH-deficient adults: comparison of GH-treated vs untreated patients.